Container- Use any type of an appropriate-sized container for holding the water bath when using metal molds.
Double Boiler- Use a double boiler for melting wax. It should be made of stainless steel or aluminum. Make certain the water in the bottom does not boil dry. Fill with more water as necessary. Once the molten wax has been poured, wipe around the inside of the double boiler with a dry kitchen towel to clean.
Funnel- Use a funnel to refill molds.
Heating Element- Use either a stove, or a hot plate.
Measuring Device- Use a scale to properly weigh the required amount of wax. If a scale is not available, break the blocks of wax into even segments by scoring with a ruler and pushing an ice pick into the wax every inch or so along the scored line.
Measuring Spoons- Use measuring spoons to measure ingredients such as oils and dyes.
Melting Pots- Use any type of metal can, such as an empty coffee can, to hold wax for melting.
Molds- Use desired type of glass, plastic, household, rubber, or metal mold in desired shape and size from simple geometric to ornate fruits and flowers.
Newspapers- Cover the work surface with plenty of paper for easy clean-up.
Pan- Choose a pan large enough to accommodate the melting pot.
Paper Towels- Use paper towels to wipe wax from equipment while still warm.
Paring Knife- Use a Sharp paring knife to trim the seam lines from the candle, cut wicks to length, and for carving.
Pot Holders- Use pot holders for safely handling hot materials. Hot containers may be rested upon pot holders also.
Probe- Use a long knitting needle, pointed dowel, or metal skewer to stir in scent or dye. The sharp end of the probe is also used to poke down into the center of the candle to open the wax around the wick.
Trivet Or Rack- Create a safe homemade alternative to the double boiler by placing a trivet or rack inside the pan with the water deep enough to come at least halfway up the sides of the melting pot. Punch holes in a 6 1/4" -diameter metal lid for a quick and an easy handmade trivet.
Wax Glue- Use to adhere pieces of wax together or to adhere embellishments to a candle. It is a soft, sticky wax. It is available in solid form and is melted in very small amounts in the top of a double boiler.
Wax Thermometer- wax must be heated to certain temperatures when making candles. A candy or cooking thermometer may be used as long as the gauge covers the same scale as a wax thermometer which is 38-108 C. Closely watch the temperature when melting wax and never leave melting wax unattended as it is as volatile as hot cooking oil.
Wax Paper Or Aluminum Foil- Cover newspaper with waxed paper or aluminum foil to keep spilled wax clean. Spilled wax may be peeled from the waxed paper or aluminum foil and remelted.
Weights- Wax is lighter then water. To prevent a filled mold from floating in a water bath, use lead weights or a length of chain to anchor the mold.
Wicking Needle- Use wicking needles (4-10 " in length) to insert wicks and to secure wicks at the base of the mold.
Types Of Wicks
A wick is what makes the wax a candle. Wicks must be carefully chosen to ensure proper burning. There are four types of wicks: flat, floating, square, and wire core. Wicks, usually made of braided cotton and specially treated to slow the burning rate, come in a variety of types and sizes and are sold in spools or small packages. They are chosen according to the size and type of candle.
Flat Wicks- are generally used for dipping candles.
Floating Wicks- are for floating candles.
Square Wicks- are for poured candles.
Wire Core Wicks- are for container and votive candles.
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